The most common discoloration of the skin is an age spot. Age spots occur as we age and are usually located in sun-exposed areas. This sun overexposure is referred to as photodamage. Age spots can be treated by many different modalities including topical hydroquionone and retinoic acid, cryotherapy, laser treatments, and chemical peels.
Post-inflammatory pigmentation, commonly referred to as PIH, is the discoloration left after an injury to the skin, whether it be acne, a burn, a scratch, etc. This discoloration is more commonly in people with dark complexions but can occur as a deep redness in those of lighter skin types.
The pigmentation changes that occur with PIH is located in the dermis of the skin and is sometimes difficult to reach. Although it may go away on its own with time, sometimes it doesn't. Treatment options for PIH include the Melanage peel, repeated superficial peels, microneedling, and laser treatments.